Cleanse Thou Me From Secret Faults

Psa 19:10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.
Psa 19:11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.
Psa 19:12 Who can understand his errors? cleanse thou me from secret faults.
Psa 19:13 Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression.
Psa 19:14 Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my strength, and my redeemer.

Psa 19:10-14 (K & D Commentary)
(Heb.: 19:10-14) With ?????????????? (for which, preferring a simple Shebâ with the gutturals, Ben-Naphtali writes ???????????????) the poet sums up the characteristics enumerated; the article is summative, as in ??????????? at the close of the hexahemeron, Gen_1:31. ???? is the finest purified gold, cf. 1Ki_10:18 with 2Ch_9:17. ????? ??????? “the discharge (from ??? = Arab. nft) of the honeycombs” is the virgin honey, i.e., the honey that flows of itself out of the cells. To be desired are the revealed words of God, to him who possesses them as an outward possession; and to him who has received them inwardly they are sweet. The poet, who is himself conscious of being a servant of God, and of striving to act as such, makes use of these words for the end for which they are revealed: he is ???????, one who suffers himself to be enlightened, instructed, and warned by them. ???? belongs to ???? (according to the usual arrangement of the words, e.g., Hos_6:11), just as in Psa_19:14 it belongs to ??????. He knows that ??????????? (with a subjective suffix in an objective sense, cf. Pro_25:7, just as we may also say:) in their observance is, or is included, great reward. ????? is that which follows upon one’s heels (?????), or comes immediately after anything, and is used here of the result of conduct. Thus, then, inasmuch as the Law is not only a copy of the divine will, but also a mirror of self-knowledge, in which a man may behold and come to know himself, he prays for forgiveness in respect of the many sins of infirmity, – though for the most part unperceived by him, – to which, even the pardoned one succumbs. ????????? (in the terminology of the Law, ????????, ???????) comprehends the whole province of the peccatum involuntarium, both the peccatum ignoranitiae and the peccatum infirmitatis. The question delicta quis intelligit is equivalent to the negative clause: no one can discern his faults, on account of the heart of man being unfathomable and on account of the disguise, oftentimes so plausible, and the subtlety of sin. Hence, as an inference, follows the prayer: pronounce me free also ??????????????, ab occultis (peccatis, which, however, cannot be supplied on grammatical grounds), equivalent to mee`alumiym (Psa_90:8), i.e., all those sins, which even he, who is most earnestly striving after sanctification, does not discern, although he may desire to know them, by reason of the ever limited nature of his knowledge both of himself and of sin.
(Note: In the Arab proverb, “no sin which is persisted in is small, no sin great for which forgiveness is sought of God,” Arab. ?g??rt, directly means a little and Arab. kb??rt, a great sin, vid., Allgem. Literar. Zeitschr. 1844, No. 46, p. 363.)
??????, ????????, is a vox judicialis, to declare innocent, pronounce free from, to let go unpunished. The prayer for justification is followed in Psa_19:14 by the prayer for sanctification, and indeed for preservation against deliberate sins. From ????, ????, to seethe, boil over, Hiph. to sin wilfully, deliberately, insolently, – opp. of sin arising from infirmity, Exo_21:14; Deu_18:22; Deu_17:12, – is formed ??? an insolent sinner, one who does not sin ???????????, but ????????? (cf. 1Sa_17:28, where David’s brethren bring this reproach against him), or ?????? ?????, and the neuter collective ?????? (cf. ??????, Psa_101:3; Hos_5:2) peccata proaeretica or contra conscientiam, which cast one out of the state of grace or favour, Num_15:27-31. For if ???? had been intended of arrogant and insolent possessors of power (Ewald), the prayer would have taken some other form than that of “keeping back” (??????? as in 1Sa_25:39 in the mouth of David). ????, presumptuous sins, when they are repeated, become dominant sins, which irresistibly enslave the man (?????? with a non-personal subject, as in Isa_3:4, cf. Psa_103:19); hence the last member of the climax (which advances from the peccatum involuntarium to the proaereticum, and from this to the regnans): let them not have dominion over me (??? with Dechî in Baer; generally wrongly marked with Munach).
Then (???), when Thou bestowest this twofold favour upon me, the favour of pardon and the grace of preservation, shall I be blameless (?????? 1 fut. Kal, instead of ??????, with ? as a characteristic of ?) and absolved (??????????? not Piel, as in Psa_19:13, but Niph., to be made pure, absolved) from great transgression. ???????
(Note: The Gaja with ?????????? is intended in this instance, where ????? ?? are to be read in close connection, to secure distinctness of pronunciation for the unaccented ?, as e.g., is also the case in Psa_78:13, ??? ??????? (b??a?j?m).)
from ??????? (root ??), to spread out, go beyond the bounds, break through, trespass, is a collective name for deliberate and reigning, dominant sin, which breaks through man’s relation of favour with God, and consequently casts him out of favour, – in one word, for apostasy. Finally, the psalmist supplicates a gracious acceptance of his prayer, in which both mouth and heart accord, supported by the faithfulness, stable as the rock (??????), and redeeming love (????????? redemptor, vindex, root ??, ??, to loose, redeem) of his God. ????? ???????? is a standing expression of the sacrificial tôra, e.g., Lev_1:3. The ?????????, which, according to Exo_28:38, belongs to ?????, stands in the second member in accordance with the “parallelism by postponement.” Prayer is a sacrifice offered by the inner man. The heart meditates and fashions it; and the mouth presents it, by uttering that which is put into the form of words.

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